Introduction to commonly used cutting tools

Mon Jul 04 15:49:36 CST 2022

Introduction to commonly used tools


1. Turning tool


The turning tool is the most widely used tool in metal cutting. It can process the outer circle, end plane, thread, inner hole on the lathe, and can also be used for grooving and cutting.


The turning tool can be divided into integral turning tool, welding assembly turning tool and mechanical clamping blade turning tool in structure. Turning tools that mechanically clamp the blades can be further divided into machine tool turning tools and indexable turning tools. The cutting performance of mechanical clamping turning tools is stable, and workers do not need to sharpen the tools, so it is more and more used in modern production.



2. Hole machining tool


Hole machining tools can generally be divided into two categories:


One type is a tool for processing holes from solid materials. Commonly used are twist drills, center drills and deep hole drills;


The other is the tool for reprocessing the existing holes on the workpiece. Commonly used are reaming drills, reamers and boring tools.


3. Milling tool


Milling tool is a widely used multi-blade rotary cutter, and there are many kinds of it. According to the purpose:


1) For processing planes, such as cylindrical face milling tool, end milling tool, etc.;


2) For processing grooves, such as end mill, T-shaped milling tool and angle milling tool;


3) Used for processing shaped surfaces, such as convex and concave semicircular milling tool and milling tool for processing other complex shaped surfaces. The productivity of milling is generally higher, and the surface roughness value of the machined surface is larger.



4. Broach


Broach is a multi-tooth tool with high machining accuracy and cutting efficiency. It is widely used in mass production and can process various internal and external surfaces. Broaches can be divided into a variety of internal broaches and external broaches according to the surface of the workpiece to be processed. When using a broach, in addition to selecting the rake angle and back angle of the tooth according to the workpiece material, and determining the size of the broach according to the size of the workpiece surface (such as the diameter of the round hole), two parameters need to be determined:


(1) Tooth lift angle af [that is the difference between the radius or height of the front and rear teeth (or tooth groups)];


(2) Tooth pitch p [that is the axial distance between two adjacent teeth].


5. threading tool


Thread can be processed by cutting method and rolling method.



6. Gear cutter

Gear cutters are cutters used to process gear tooth profiles. According to the working principle of the cutter, gears are divided into forming gear cutters and generating gear cutters. Commonly used forming gear cutters include disc gear milling cutters and finger gear cutters. Commonly used generating gear cutters include gear shaper cutters, gear hobs and gear shaving cutters. When selecting gear hobs and gear shapers, pay attention to the following points:

(1) The basic parameters of the cutting tool (modulus, tooth profile angle, addendum height coefficient, etc.) should be the same as the gear being machined.

(2) The accuracy level of the cutting tool should be equivalent to that required by the gear being machined.

(3) The rotation direction of the cutting tool should be as same as the rotation direction of the machined gear as much as possible. When hobbing a spur gear, a left-handed knife is generally used


7. Automatic lines and CNC machine tools

Generally speaking, the cutting part of this type of tool is not much different from the general tool. It is just to adapt to the characteristics of CNC machine tools and automatic line processing, and higher requirements are put forward on them.


Numerical control tools have formed three major systems: turning tool systems, drilling tool systems and boring and milling tool systems.